Insomnia in patients with traumatic brain injury: frequency, characteristics, and risk factors.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


J Head Trauma Rehabil, Volume 21, Issue 3, p.199-212 (2006)


Adult, Brain Injuries, Depression, Fatigue, Female, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Pain, Quebec, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders, Surveys and Questionnaires


<p><b>OBJECTIVES: </b>To document the frequency of insomnia (according to DSM-IV and ICSD criteria), to describe its sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and to identify potential predictors of insomnia in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE: Four hundred fifty-two participants aged 16 years and older with minor to severe TBI answered a questionnaire pertaining to quality of sleep and fatigue.</p><p><b>MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: </b>Proportion of participants fulfilling criteria for insomnia symptoms or syndrome. Validated measures of insomnia severity, fatigue level, and psychologic distress. Results of a logistic regression analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Overall, 50.2% of the sample reported insomnia symptoms and 29.4% fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for an insomnia syndrome. For the latter participants, insomnia was a severe and chronic condition remaining untreated in almost 60% of cases. Risk factors associated with insomnia were milder TBIs, and higher levels of fatigue, depression, and pain.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION: </b>Insomnia is a prevalent condition after TBI requiring more clinical and scientific attention as it may have important repercussions on rehabilitation.</p>

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