Longitudinal Assessment of Vitamin D Status across Trimesters of Pregnancy.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


J Nutr, Volume 151, Issue 7, p.1937-1946 (2021)


<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>The evolution of vitamin D status across pregnancy trimesters and its association with prepregnancy body mass index (ppBMI; in kg/m2) remain unclear.</p><p><b>OBJECTIVES: </b>We aimed to 1) assess trimester-specific serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, 2) compare those concentrations between ppBMI categories, and 3) examine associations between 25(OH)D concentrations, ppBMI, and vitamin D intake.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>As part of a prospective cohort study, 79 pregnant women with a mean age of 32.1 y and ppBMI of 25.7 kg/m2 were recruited in their first trimester (average 9.3 weeks of gestation). Each trimester, vitamin D intake was assessed by 3 Web-based 24-h recalls and a Web questionnaire on supplement use. Serum total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-tandem MS. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to assess the evolution of 25(OH)D concentrations across trimesters of pregnancy and comparisons of 25(OH)D concentrations between ppBMI categories were assessed by 1-factor ANOVAs. Stepwise regression analyses were used to identify determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations in the third trimester.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Mean ± SD serum total 25(OH)D concentrations increased across trimesters, even after adjustments for ppBMI, seasonal variation, and vitamin D intake from supplements (67.5 ± 20.4, 86.5 ± 30.9, and 88.3 ± 29.0 nmol/L at mean ± SD 12.6 ± 0.8, 22.5 ± 0.8, and 33.0 ± 0.6 weeks of gestation, respectively; P < 0.0001). In the first and third trimesters, women with a ppBMI ≥30 had lower serum total 25(OH)D concentrations than women with a ppBMI <25 (P < 0.05); however, most had concentrations >40nmol/L by the second trimester. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the strongest determinant of third-trimester serum total 25(OH)D concentrations (r2 = 0.246, β = 0.51; P < 0.0001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>There was an increase in serum total 25(OH)D concentrations across trimesters, independent of ppBMI, seasonal variation, and vitamin D intake from supplements. Almost all women had serum total 25(OH)D concentrations over the 40- and 50-nmol/L thresholds, thus our study supports the prenatal use of a multivitamin across pregnancy.</p>

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