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In utero onset of long QT syndrome with atrioventricular block and spontaneous or lidocaine-induced ventricular tachycardia: compound effects of hERG pore region mutation and SCN5A N-terminus variant.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Heart Rhythm, Volume 5, Issue 11, p.1567-74 (2008)

Abstract:

<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>Mexiletine may protect patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 3 from arrhythmias. However, we found an unusual in utero presentation of intermittent atrioventricular block and ventricular tachycardia (spontaneous or lidocaine-induced) in a fetus and his sibling with LQTS.</p><p><b>OBJECTIVE: </b>The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying channelopathy and functional alteration.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>Mutations were searched in KCNQ1, HERG, KCNE1, KCNE2, and SCN5A genes. In expressed mutants, whole-cell voltage clamp defined the electrophysiologic properties.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Novel missense mutations involving hERG (F627L) at the pore region and SCN5A (R43Q) at the N-terminus were found in the proband and in family members with prolonged QT interval. In oocytes injected with mRNA encoding hERG/ F627L, almost zero K(+) currents were elicited. In coinjected oocytes, the currents were decreased to half. In tsA201 cells transfected with SCN5A/R43Q, although the baseline kinetics of the Na current were similar to wild type, lidocaine caused a unique hyperpolarizing shift of the activation and increased the availability of Na currents at resting voltages. Window currents were enhanced due to a right shift of steady-state inactivation. These electrophysiologic alterations after lidocaine may lead to the development of ventricular tachycardia.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION: </b>We identified a novel hERG/F627L mutation that results in LQTS with fetal onset of atrioventricular block and ventricular tachycardia. A coexisting SCN5A/R43Q variant, although it per se does not prolong repolarization, contributes to the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias after lidocaine. Patients with such latent lidocaine-induced phenotype who are given lidocaine or mexiletine may be at risk.</p>

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