Brain states in freely behaving marmosets.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Sleep, Volume 45, Issue 8 (2022)


Animals, Callithrix, Electroencephalography, Humans, Neocortex, Sleep, Sleep, REM, Wakefulness


<p><b>STUDY OBJECTIVES: </b>We evaluated common marmosets as a perspective animal model to study human sleep and wake states.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>Using wireless neurologger recordings, we performed longitudinal multichannel local field potential (LFP) cortical, hippocampal, neck muscle, and video recordings in three freely behaving marmosets. The brain states were formally identified using self-organizing maps.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Marmosets were generally awake during the day with occasional 1-2 naps, and they slept during the night. Major electrographic patterns fall in five clearly distinguished categories: wakefulness, drowsiness, light and deep NREM sleep, and REM. Marmosets typically had 14-16 sleep cycles per night, with either gradually increasing or relatively low, but stable delta power within the cycle. Overall, the delta power decreased throughout the night sleep. Marmosets demonstrated prominent high amplitude somatosensory mu-rhythm (10-15 Hz), accompanied with neocortical ripples, and alternated with occipital alpha rhythm (10-15 Hz). NREM sleep was characterized with the presence of high amplitude slow waves, sleep spindles and ripples in neocortex, and sharp-wave-ripple complexes in CA1. Light and deep stages differed in levels of delta and sigma power and muscle tone. REM sleep was defined with low muscle tone and activated LFP with predominant beta-activity and rare spindle-like or mu-like events.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Multiple features of sleep-wake state distribution and electrographic patterns associated with behavioral states in marmosets closely match human states, although marmoset have shorter sleep cycles. This demonstrates that marmosets represent an excellent model to study origin of human electrographical rhythms and brain states.</p>

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