Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Neuropharmacology, Volume 58, Issue 6, p.877-83 (2010)
Keywords:Adult Stem Cells, Animals, Brain, Cell Movement, Humans, Neurogenesis, Neurons, Stroke
Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs predominantly in the two regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) bordering the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The neuronal precursors are produced in the specialized microenvironment called neurovasculature niche. Recent evidences indicate that in addition to neurogenesis promoting environment, vasculature also serves as a substrate for migration for these newly generated cells. Importantly, under some pathological condition, including stroke, neurogenesis is enhanced in the adult brain. Newly generated neuronal precursors migrate to the sites of injury along the blood vessels and try to integrate to the damaged brain circuitry. This self-healing capacity of the adult brain is, however, insufficient to produce a noticeable amelioration in the affected neuronal network since only a tiny proportion of cells succeed to integrate and survive. Here we review the mechanisms of neuronal recruitment into the post-stroke regions with particular attention to the guidance of neuronal precursors along the blood vessels. We also outline some of the molecular factors that have been used or have a potential to be employed to improve the cell recruitment into the sites of injury.