[Issues Surrounding Work and School Reintegration for People in the Early Stages of a Psychotic Disorder].

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Sante Ment Que, Volume 46, Issue 2, p.161-187 (2021)

Abstract:

<p>Introduction Socio-professional reintegration is an objective that is regularly sought-after by people in the early stages of a psychotic disorder. Despite this, employment rates are low for this population and high school dropout rates remind at a high level. Objectives and method This literature synthesis based on recent meta-analyses and studies aims at presenting the determinants of vocational and school integration for people in the early stages of a psychotic disorder. This will be followed by the presentation of the most studied supported employment and education programs, as well as by complementary interventions to support existing programs. In addition, key concepts are illustrated through clinical vignettes for this clientele. Results. Several barriers to socio-professional reintegration in this population could help explain the lower success rates when compared to the general population, including individual factors (e.g., past employment history, length of absence from the labour market, negative and cognitive symptoms, motivation) and environmental factors (e.g., availability of supported employment or education programs, competence of the employment specialist, social assistance benefits, employer attitude). The program that shows the most accumulated evidence is called Individual Placement and Support (IPS) and is frequently used in Quebec. IPS focuses on competitive job search, rapid placement in the labour market and collaboration between an employment specialist, the client, and the employer. Mowbray's supported education programs, as well as IPS adapted for education, help respond more specifically to the needs of people in the early stages of a psychotic disorder, who often wish to return to school. This article describes two clinical examples of programs offered in Quebec. Despite the interesting results provided by supported programs, socio-professional reintegration and maintaining employment remain difficult for people who are in the early stages of a psychotic disorder. Considering this, several researchers suggest that interventions for people with psychotic disorders should be more individualized, given the great heterogeneity associated with this condition. Combining interventions that are specific to each candidate's pre-existing individual deficits (e.g., cognitive remediation, cognitive-behavioural therapy, social skills training) appears to be an effective solution for optimizing the therapeutic response in supported employment or education programs. Conclusion This article highlights the issues related to the professional or academic reintegration of people in the early stages of a psychotic disorder, in order to guide practitioners in the field and to offer possible solutions to the current limitations of these programs in Quebec, including access to certain interventions.</p>

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