Normative data for the Color Trails Test in middle-aged and elderly Quebec-French people.

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Appl Neuropsychol Adult, p.1-9 (2022)


<p><b>OBJECTIVE: </b>Despite the widespread use of the Color Trails Test (CTT) in clinical and research settings, information regarding the impact of sociodemographic variables on test performance in Quebec-French adults and elderly people is non-existent. This study aimed to establish French-Quebec normative data for error scores and completion time on all test trials (CTT1 and CTT2) taking into account the impact of age, education, and sex on test performance.</p><p><b>METHOD: </b>The sample consisted of 169 community-dwelling and healthy Quebec-French individuals aged between 50 and 90 years and having between 6 and 21 years of formal education.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Regression analyses indicated that age was associated with completion time on CTT1 and CTT2. Spearman correlations also revealed that age was positively associated with error scores (CTT1 errors, CTT2 number errors, CTT2 near-misses) and index interference. Education was marginally associated with CTT1 but was not associated with CTT2 completion time or interference index. Education was only associated with the number of errors in the CTT2. Finally, sex was not associated with any variables. Equations to calculate scores and percentiles are presented.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Norms for the CTT will ease the interpretation of executive functioning in Quebec-French adults and the elderly and favor accurate discrimination between normal and pathological cognitive states.</p>

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