A Single-Chip Full-Duplex High Speed Transceiver for Multi-Site Stimulating and Recording Neural Implants

Publication Type:

Journal Article


IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and SystemsIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Volume 10, Issue 3, p.643 - 653 (2016)




Amplifiers, Electronic, amplitude shift keying, Animals, binary phase shift keying modulation, biomedical electronics, Bit error rate, CMOS, CMOS integrated circuits, Coils, efficiency 41.6 percent, Electronics, Medical, Equipment Design, frequency 13.56 MHz, full-duplex transceiver, fully-integrated low-power full-duplex transceiver, high density brain machine interface, high-speed, impulse radio ultrawide band, impulse-radio ultra-wide band, low-power electronics, Mixers, multisite stimulating neural implants, Neural Prostheses, Neurophysiology, on-chip power management circuits, on-off keying receiver, phase shift keying, power 10.4 mW, power 25 mW, power consumption, prosthetics, radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) design, Receivers, recording neural implants, single-chip full-duplex high speed transceiver, size 0.18 mum, transceivers, Transistors, transmitter, Transmitters, ultra wideband communication, Wireless communication, wireless data transmission


<p>We present a novel, fully-integrated, low-power full-duplex transceiver (FDT) to support high-density and bidirectional neural interfacing applications (high-channel count stimulating and recording) with asymmetric data rates: higher rates are required for recording (uplink signals) than stimulation (downlink signals). The transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) share a single antenna to reduce implant size and complexity. The TX uses impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) based on an edge combining approach, and the RX uses a novel 2.4-GHz on-off keying (OOK) receiver. Proper isolation (&gt;20 dB) between the TX and RX path is implemented 1) by shaping the transmitted pulses to fall within the unregulated UWB spectrum (3.1-7 GHz), and 2) by space-efficient filtering (avoiding a circulator or diplexer) of the downlink OOK spectrum in the RX low-noise amplifier. The UWB 3.1-7 GHz transmitter can use either OOK or binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation schemes. The proposed FDT provides dual band 500-Mbps TX uplink data rate and 100 Mbps RX downlink data rate, and it is fully integrated into standard TSMC 0.18- μm CMOS within a total size of 0.8 mm<sup>2</sup>. The total measured power consumption is 10.4 mW in full duplex mode (5 mW at 100 Mbps for RX, and 5.4 mW at 500 Mbps or 10.8 pJ/bit for TX). Additionally, a 3-coil inductive link along with on-chip power management circuits allows to powering up the implantable transceiver wirelessly by delivering 25 mW extracted from a 13.56-MHz carrier signal, at a total efficiency of 41.6%.</p>

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