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A Single-Chip Full-Duplex High Speed Transceiver for Multi-Site Stimulating and Recording Neural Implants

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and SystemsIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Volume 10, Issue 3, p.643 - 653 (2016)

ISBN:

1932-4545

Keywords:

Amplifiers, Electronic, amplitude shift keying, Animals, binary phase shift keying modulation, biomedical electronics, Bit error rate, CMOS, CMOS integrated circuits, Coils, efficiency 41.6 percent, Electronics, Medical, Equipment Design, frequency 13.56 MHz, full-duplex transceiver, fully-integrated low-power full-duplex transceiver, high density brain machine interface, high-speed, impulse radio ultrawide band, impulse-radio ultra-wide band, low-power electronics, Mixers, multisite stimulating neural implants, Neural Prostheses, Neurophysiology, on-chip power management circuits, on-off keying receiver, phase shift keying, power 10.4 mW, power 25 mW, power consumption, prosthetics, radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) design, Receivers, recording neural implants, single-chip full-duplex high speed transceiver, size 0.18 mum, transceivers, Transistors, transmitter, Transmitters, ultra wideband communication, Wireless communication, wireless data transmission

Abstract:

<p>We present a novel, fully-integrated, low-power full-duplex transceiver (FDT) to support high-density and bidirectional neural interfacing applications (high-channel count stimulating and recording) with asymmetric data rates: higher rates are required for recording (uplink signals) than stimulation (downlink signals). The transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) share a single antenna to reduce implant size and complexity. The TX uses impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) based on an edge combining approach, and the RX uses a novel 2.4-GHz on-off keying (OOK) receiver. Proper isolation (&gt;20 dB) between the TX and RX path is implemented 1) by shaping the transmitted pulses to fall within the unregulated UWB spectrum (3.1-7 GHz), and 2) by space-efficient filtering (avoiding a circulator or diplexer) of the downlink OOK spectrum in the RX low-noise amplifier. The UWB 3.1-7 GHz transmitter can use either OOK or binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation schemes. The proposed FDT provides dual band 500-Mbps TX uplink data rate and 100 Mbps RX downlink data rate, and it is fully integrated into standard TSMC 0.18- μm CMOS within a total size of 0.8 mm<sup>2</sup>. The total measured power consumption is 10.4 mW in full duplex mode (5 mW at 100 Mbps for RX, and 5.4 mW at 500 Mbps or 10.8 pJ/bit for TX). Additionally, a 3-coil inductive link along with on-chip power management circuits allows to powering up the implantable transceiver wirelessly by delivering 25 mW extracted from a 13.56-MHz carrier signal, at a total efficiency of 41.6%.</p>

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