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Slow Wave Sleep Is a Promising Intervention Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Front Neurosci, Volume 14, p.705 (2020)

Abstract:

<p>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia, characterized by the presence of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles. Plaques and tangles are associated with sleep-wake cycle disruptions, including the disruptions in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) slow wave sleep (SWS). Alzheimer's patients spend less time in NREM sleep and exhibit decreased slow wave activity (SWA). Consistent with the critical role of SWS in memory consolidation, reduced SWA is associated with impaired memory consolidation in AD patients. The aberrant SWA can be modeled in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis and tauopathy. Animal models exhibited slow wave impairments early in the disease progression, prior to the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques, however, in the presence of abundant oligomeric amyloid-beta. Optogenetic rescue of SWA successfully halted the amyloid accumulation and restored intraneuronal calcium levels in mice. On the other hand, optogenetic acceleration of slow wave frequency exacerbated amyloid deposition and disrupted neuronal calcium homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the evidence and the mechanisms underlying the existence of a positive feedback loop between amyloid/tau pathology and SWA disruptions that lead to further accumulations of amyloid and tau in AD. Moreover, since SWA disruptions occur prior to the plaque deposition, SWA disruptions may provide an early biomarker for AD. Finally, we propose that therapeutic targeting of SWA in AD might lead to an effective treatment for Alzheimer's patients.</p>

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